Dialéctica del relato y la novela + trampas dopamínicas.

Tiempo de lectura: 4 minutos

Tengo un problema con los relatos cortos, y es que a pesar de toda la genialidad e inventiva que existe en ellos, a pesar de pasar uno la noche boca arriba, incluso aunque uno despierte y el dinosaurio aún esté ahí, en el fondo, me da igual.

En un espacio tan corto la posible identificación emocional con los destinos y sufrimientos de los personajes es bastante escaso, a mis neuronas espejos no le han dado tiempo a reflejar en una empatía casi mecánica los pesares del otro, de esta manera el principal gozo es intelectual, el de contemplar como ciertas estructuras narrativas son sorprendentes, ingeniosas y bien trabadas.

Por ende, no me resulta extraño que el formato serie o las sagas funcionen. Me ha sucedido en muchas ocasiones que a pesar de muchas deficiencias que he notado en alguno de estos productos no puedo parar de consumirlos ya que mi identificación con los personajes es tal que se activan mis centros neurológicos de la curiosidad y del cotilleo, que son muy primitivos (y por tanto efectivos), y sigo consumiendo el producto. Pero esta aparente ventaja de la narración larga también tiene sus posibles efectos secundarios: el agotamiento de ideas, el uso de relleno y el estirar innecesariamente algunas tramas es un riesgo real y presente. Por eso, los productos largos y exitosos, como juego de tronos (sí, esto merece matices) suelen usar muchos personajes, con una conexión intima entre todos de tal manera que se mitigan los efectos del relleno y de la abulia, creando de esta manera un mundo más complejo y rico con el que resulta más fácil llevar a cabo el pacto ficcional que todo espectador lleva a cabo con toda narración.

No considero que exista una simple y plana oposición/diferencia entre narrativa corta y larga, creo que si uno quiere crear obras de arte verdaderamente impactantes deberá jugar a una dialéctica entre ambas. Renunciar a la creatividad y posibilidades de un relato corto es castrarse como escritor, a todos nos ha pasado que se nos ocurre una idea del estilo «¿Cómo sería un universo donde los humanos tienen visión nocturna? ¿Qué tipo de creencias, palabras, instituciones, sexualidad y demás cultivarían?» y quiere ejecutarla y cultivarla. Pero por muy ingenioso que sea el relato el éxito del mismo será escaso con casi toda seguridad, dada la imposibilidad de generar apego y empatía por un mundo ficcional concreto en tan pocas páginas. Una posible solución es introducir esta posibilidad en nuestra gran saga, de tal manera nuestros héroes espaciales, cuando se pierden en la galaxia A AE-X-12 acaban en Selenia, donde la escasez de luz solar ha provocado una mutación en los colonos terráqueos. Pero esto no siempre será posible, muchas veces las leyes del mundo de ficción que estamos construyendo imposibilitan la inclusión de ese microrelato que estamos ensayando, o el narrador omnisciente que estamos cultivando nos impide experimentar con esa primera persona que nos parece ideal.

Existen soluciones para sostener todavía la armonía entre relato corto y largo ¿Por qué no escribir un relato dentro de la novela principal? No es extraño que en esos mundos existan personas con capacidad para la escritura y que sean creativos, de esta manera externalizamos nuestro papel de escritor, lo cual es beneficioso en sí ya que aumenta la ilusión de realidad, y hacemos que nuestro mundo fantástico se vea más rico, heterogéneo y verosímil. Pero incluso así a veces será imposible, si eres tan creativo y disperso como yo te sucederá que quieres explorar nuevas leyes de la realidad, conceptos disruptivos y por tanto no quedaría bien que en tu saga sobre las luchas de poder de la edad de bronce apareciera un relato corto sobre un purificador racial conectado a una IA lovecraftiana.

Pero al revés puede funcionar, quizás en un relato tecnodistópico de terror exista una referencia clara, atrayente y narrativamente consistente a la existencia de un mundo de la edad de bronce, lleno de luchas, traiciones y raptos de doncellas. Esto no sólo produce relaciones ficcionales más ricas, complejas, heterogéneas y por ende verosímiles sino que funciona como una trampa de dopamina.

La trampa de dopamina es un concepto que se entiende mejor al indagar un poco cual es el principal obstáculo de toda saga y/o serie de televisión; El principal obstáculo es empezar a verla, por ello el episodio piloto o los trailer son tan importantes, ya que aún no existe la identificación emocional, que se va construyendo con el tiempo y es fácil que el espectador o le de pereza empezarlo (sí, sé que «A dos metros bajo tierra» es muy buena pero) o que abandone en los primeros capítulos (conozco mucha gente que abandonó con los primeros capítulos de The Wire, que le jodan al espectador medio fue literal ahí).

Es por eso que las trampas de dopamina son tan necesarias, que ese ¿Quiero saber más? se introduzca en cada relato, y es por ello que imagino, que como dulce trampa para tus futuros lectores uses formatos cortos, como relatos, artículos de blog, hilos de twitter, incluso videos de youtube, para generar expectativas sobre esa saga tuya en la que les da pereza sumergirse. Como todo en la vida y en el arte hay que usarlo con mesura pero no me cuesta imaginar que en el relato sobre la IA Lovecraftiana exista una referencia a Skorl, conquistador de la edad de bronce y a su ignoto destino, el cual se explicita mejor en mi primer libro, autoeditado en Amazon Kindle «Llegaron los indoarios».

En un mundo donde todos compiten por nuestra atención: publicidad, redes sociales, espectáculos de entretenimiento, pretender que una actividad, que ya de por sí tiene una curva de dificultad como es la escritura, no haga uso de todos los posibles sesgos y debilidades cognitivas del ser humano, es como ir a la guerra con un hacha de piedra. Es puro prejuicio romántico y elitista, según el cual si es divertido y atrayente no tiene valor literario y artístico cuando precisamente es más difícil, exige más esfuerzo construir algo entretenido que expresar una paja mental del estilo «¿Como sería un relato donde todo el mundo habla un idioma diferente?». Es muy fácil escribirlo, inventar autoestimita majadera y aburriros a todos y que no lo lea casi nadie. Lo que es difícil es cultivar uno de los más viejos artes de la humanidad, el de encandilaros, el de engatusaros y hacer que abandonéis la dura realidad y que os sumerjáis en la mía, en esa dura labor, casi demiúrgica, me obligáis a construir un mundo coherente, heterogénea, lleno de sorpresas, de equilibrio narrativo, de arquetipos y de subversiones de lo conocido, de, en fin, el borde y la línea de lo que es verdad, lo que es mentira y lo que es ambas.

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